Project Description

  1. The Technical Vocational Education and Training Sector Development Program (current project) was approved by the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Board of Directors on 26 September 2014, in the amount of Special Drawing Rights (SDR) 19,428,000 (USD 30 million equivalent), and comprised of a policy-based loan (USD 7 million equivalent) and a project loan (USD 23 million equivalent). The current project became effective in 09 January 2015.
  1. The Agence Française de Développement (AFD) had expressed interest in providing cofinancing to the current project during the preparation stage, but the scope and administration of AFD cofinancing was not finalized by the time of ADB’s loan approval. Subsequently, on 17 June 2015, the AFD Board of Directors approved additional cofinancing to the current project through a loan of USD 15 million equivalent to the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC), to be administered by ADB.
  1. The overall Technical Vocational Education and Training Sector Development Program (the Project), which includes the current project and the proposed additional cofinancing, will support RGC to address equity and quality issues facing the technical vocational education and training (TVET) system through: (i) increased access to TVET programs, particularly for women and the poor; (ii) improved quality and relevance of the TVET system; and (iii) strengthened governance and management of TVET delivery. The Project supports RGC’s commitment to the development of high-quality, skilled and capable human resources in order to meet the immediate and long-term needs of economic growth and socio-economic development.[1]

Impact and Outcome

  1. The impact of the Project will be increased employment of TVET certified workers. The outcome of the Project will be an accessible, demand-driven TVET system responsive to continuing and emerging labor market demands. While the Project’s impact and outcome statements will remain unaffected, the additional cofinancing will benefit additional number of youth, including more vulnerable youth and females, in Cambodia.


  1. Four outputs are designed to achieve the expected outcome: (i) increased access to TVET programs, particularly for women and the poor; (ii) improved quality and relevance of the TVET system; (iii) increased involvement of employers in TVET delivery; and (iv) strengthened governance and management of TVET system. The Good Governance Framework in Appendix 2 provides an overview of expected project implementation issues and measures for resolution. With additional cofinancing, the output statements are unchanged, but performance targets are increased, where applicable, to account for additional investments to improve TVET access, quality, relevance, and management.
  1. More specifically, the proposed additional cofinancing will scale-up activities under the investment part of the current project, particularly focusing on upgrading of teaching and learning environments of selected training institutes, strengthening capacity of TVET instructors and managers, provision of stipends to disadvantaged students, financing skills bridging courses, strengthening efforts to improve social marketing for TVET, and improve capacity for analytical work, monitoring and evaluation to establish a strong foundation for evidence-based policy making improving efficiency and effectiveness of the TVET sector.
  1. A detailed Project description is provided below.

Output 1: Increased Access to TVET Programs

  1. The Project will increase access to TVET programs through (i) introduction of the Vocational Skills Certification (VSC) at CQF level 1 of the Cambodian Qualifications Framework (CQF); (ii) policy development for the introduction of new flexible pathways into TVET, including recognition of prior learning and recognition of current competencies (RPL/RCC); (iii) piloting VSC and RPL/RCC with the existing Voucher Skills Training Program (VSTP) and Skills Bridging Program (SBP); (iv) provision of stipend for disadvantaged youth and women enrolling in CQF levels 2–4 training program; (v) construction of women’s dormitories with career mentorship program  to attract and retain female trainees; and (vi) implementation of social marketing strategy to raise awareness about TVET programs to Cambodian youth, employers, and  community-at-large.
  1. Introduce the Vocational Skills Certification (VSC). The Project will support the Department of National Competency Standards (DNCS) to review rules for all TVET qualifications and produce qualification requirements for introducing the VSC at CQF level 1 as an alternative entry requirement into the formal TVET system (CQF level 2). Entry requirements at CQF level 1 do not include Grade 9 certification. The VSC will include an option for trainees to study towards a specific subject area leading to CQF level 2 qualification. The Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MLVT) will issue Prakas and relevant guidelines for implementing and monitoring CQF, inclusive of VSC criteria for qualification. The implementation of the VSC will be piloted with the existing non-formal TVET courses in mechanics, construction and ICT/business.[2] Findings and conclusions from the pilot will inform the Directorate General of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (DGTVET) on ways to reconfigure non-formal short course training to recognize skills achievement.
  1. The Project will also support DNCS to develop the basic and core competency standards for the VSC, and specific units of competency for the VSC in the following priority sectors: mechanics (auto mechanics), construction, electrical works, and manufacturing.
  1. The Project will support DNCS to produce a report identifying limitations of current entry requirements at each level of the CQF with recommendations for revisions. The report will inform options for more flexible pathways into the various levels of the formal TVET system.
  1. Develop and implement policies for recognition of prior learning and recognition of current competencies (RPL/RCC). Access to formal TVET programs may be increased by recognizing current skills, knowledge, and attitude regardless of how, when or where they were obtained. Skills, knowledge, and attitude may be acquired through non-formal or formal training, or through work experiences and everyday life experiences. This is called recognition of prior learning and current competencies (RPL/RCC).
  1. The Project will support DGTVET to develop the Assessment Policy and Certification Policy and associated guidelines to operationalize the process for recognition of prior learning and recognition of current competencies (RPL/RCC) under DGTVET to recognize more Cambodian youth with qualifications to enter formal TVET programs. The Assessment Policy will outline the rationale for conducting competency assessments in order to facilitate access to formal TVET. The Certification Policy will outline the procedure for allowing the recognition of competency units achieved, as well as the certification of complete qualifications for CQF levels 1– Relevant procedural requirements and guidelines for implementing and monitoring the approved Assessment Policy and Certification Policy will be developed. Policies and guidelines will be endorsed by MLVT.
  1. An operational plan will be developed for the phased introduction of RPL/RCC. DNCS will also be supported to develop training modules for the implementation of RPL/RCC. Eighty (80) staff from DGTVET, Public TVET Institutions, and managers of assessment centers will be trained to implement the RPL/RCC process. Two hundred assessors (15% female) from Public TVET Institutions will be trained to conduct competency assessments which are central to the RPL/RCC process. The process for RCC and RPL, including competency assessments, will be piloted with 150 young adults (10% female) enrolled in TVET courses in mechanics (auto mechanics), construction, and ICT/business. The process for RCC and RPL will be rolled out to assess approximately 900 Cambodians (15% female) for competency in the aforementioned sectors over a period of 2 years.
  1. Establish Stipend Program for CQF Levels 2–4 Training for Disadvantaged Youth and Women. The Project will support the provision of training stipends to disadvantaged youth and women by Public TVET Institutions. MLVT will request and evaluate proposals for CQF level 2-4 training stipends from its Public TVET Institutions, which will include the numbers of beneficiaries from the poorest communes, those identified as ethnic minorities, and the proportion of women proposed to enroll in CQF Levels 2–4 training. Stipends will be $60 per month for a 9-month long course per eligible trainee enrolled. In addition, cluster coordination units will be establish to support implementation and monitoring of the stipends program, as well as promote greater articulation and synergies between stipends, VSC, STP, SBP and social marketing interventions at the cluster level.
  1. At mid-term, the CQF 2-4 training stipends will be reviewed. This would also include assessment of the stipends system, including a review of the adequacy, efficiency, equity, and/or timeliness of benefit structure, targeting, financial management (including funds flow), payments, and monitoring and verification sub-systems. Based on the mid-term review, improvements to strengthen performance of the stipends program will be identified and operationalized.
  1. Overall, a total of 5,000 trainees (4,000 original, 1,000 additional), of which 30% are female, will be targeted and receive stipends during the Project implementation period. An impact evaluation of the stipends program is also proposed to be undertaken to measure program impacts on, enrollment, retention, completion, and job status. The impact evaluation will be undertaken conditional on availability of grant resources from a regional technical assistance project administered by the Economics Research Department in ADB.
  1. Pilot Vocational Guidance and Counseling for CQF Levels 2-4 Trainees. The Project will support piloting of vocational guidance and counseling services in select TVET institutions to motivate TVET CQF levels 2-4 students (males and females) to complete training; acquire soft skills critical for job search, job application, and in the workplace; build workplace awareness; and inform them about relevant employment opportunities which are available. Vocational guidance and counseling will also include imparting tips and tools to manage common areas of concern for youth trainees, such as anxiety, stress management and time management. The Project will develop vocational counseling and guidance materials, tools, and activities, and identify and train TVET staff in pilot TVET institutions to provide vocational guidance and counseling. These activities will be closely coordinated with NEA and ILUs to link vocational guidance and counseling activities with labor market needs and employment opportunities for TVET trainees. In addition, the Project will support development of a strategy and a phased action plan for institutionalizing vocational guidance and counseling in TVET institutions.
  1. Pilot Women’s Dormitories with Career Mentorship Program. The Project will make provision to pilot women’s dormitories, inclusive of career mentorship program, at 6 provincial training centers (PTCs) to increase women’s access to TVET programs. Under the current project, women’s dormitories, inclusive of career mentorship program, will be piloted in Vocational Training Center in Koh Kong, Vocational Training Center of Banteay Meanchey, and Chantiers-Ecoles de Formation Professionnelle (CEFP) in Siem Reap. With additional cofinancing, the pilot will be expanded to 3 additional PTCs, namely, Prey konkla VTC in Battambang province, Kratie PTC in Kratie province, and Kandal PTC in Kandal province. Construction will include water and sanitation packages for each of the 3 women’s dormitories. The dormitories will enable access to at least 40 women per PTC. On the ground floor of the dormitory buildings, a women’s leadership center (WLC) will be set up, where the career mentorship program will be conducted, with monthly program features such as learning events related to entrepreneurship and financial literacy and information sessions about specific career tracks and job opportunities. The Project will make provision for dormitory furniture, as well as a computer lab, multimedia learning materials addressing soft skills (i.e. communication, critical thinking, etc.), and books for career mentorship program. The pilot will include delivery of the career mentorship program. Management and operation of the dormitories will be financed by TVET institutions for the following: 24-hour security, daily housekeeping, and building maintenance.
  1. The objective of the career mentorship program is to engage women to learn about emerging career opportunities and entrepreneurial routes into non-traditional trades (i.e. auto mechanics, air conditioner repair, etc.). The Project will train PTC Directors to design monthly career mentorship programs and implement with outsourced contractor. The Office of Special Needs and Gender under the Department of TVET Management will be engaged to assess and evaluate the development and implementation of the career mentorship programs. The Project will make provision for an impact study to understand the extent to which the women’s dormitories, inclusive of career mentorship program, supported retention of female students in TVET programs. Two female PTC staff members from each of the 6 PTCs (3 original, 3 additional) will be trained to oversee implementation of the career mentorship program.
  1. Selection criteria for female students to reside in dormitory will include need for housing assistance determined through assessment conducted by PTC and inclination to begin training for non-traditional trades. All female residents at the dormitories will be required to attend all career mentorship program features. Female students enrolled at the PTCs, but not residing at dormitories, will be eligible to attend all career mentorship features.
  1. Promote Social Marketing of TVET. The Project will build the capacity of DGTVET to develop and monitor a sustained TVET social marketing campaign to improve the poor public perception of TVET and vocationally-oriented occupations. The office responsible for TVET Marketing will be equipped with large format printer to develop marketing materials for Public TVET Institutions, and signage displays with demountable booth and tents to display information about TVET course offerings and information on career directions at school visits and fairs.
  1. Regional Training Center (RTC) directors will be guided to assign staff responsible for social marketing. Training will be provided under the Project to implement marketing activities to promote TVET course offerings and career directions at the regional and provincial levels. The Office of Special Needs and Gender under the Department of TVET Management will be engaged to develop marketing messages to build awareness among women about TVET course offerings and career directions. A total of 100 participants from DGTVET, RTCs, PTCs, and Public TVET Institutions will attend workshops on implementing the TVET social marketing campaign and identifying effective ways to communicate and illustrate opportunities for vocationally-oriented careers. The Project will make provision for road shows to take place at the provincial and local level to build awareness about the value of TVET and its connection to immediate job opportunities. The Project will support the development of locally contextualized road shows in coordination with the office responsible for TVET marketing under DGTVET, NEA, relevant PTCs, RTCs, and Public TVET Institutions; and local employers. With additional cofinancing, the Project will further expand the scope of social marketing activities undertaken by DGTVET and Public TVET institutions, including open days at Public TVET institutions; seminars and workshops, additional roadshows, school visits, TVET exhibits and fairs jointly conducted with NEA job fairs, among others. Assessment and evaluation of social marketing strategies implemented by RTCs, PTCs, and Public TVET Institutions will be supported by the Project.
  1. To improve the public image of TVET, the Project will make provision for contracting with an established public relations firm on an output-based basis to prepare and implement a multifaceted advocacy campaign at the national and local levels, with the intent to: (i) enhance general public awareness on the importance of TVET; (ii) provide information on TVET programs and income earning opportunities of TVET graduates to students, parents and out-of-school youth; (iii) encourage greater participation of companies, business associations, and communities in TVET to increase enrollment in training institutes; (iv) enhance the awareness on the importance to improve quality and relevance of TVET services among key government stakeholders who are influencing budget planning and education policy. The TVET campaign will include the following key strategies: (i) establish media relationships, and effective media networks with MLVT and among training institutions; (ii) support MLVT to develop specific TVET strategies and campaigns, including adequate electronic and print mass media messages, websites, social media appearance, etc.; (iii) measure the impact of advocacy campaigns; (iv) increase TVET-related discussions on national and local television and radio; (v) promote TVET events at schools, community meetings, public occasions; (vi) consider digital and social media based campaigns, including short-message-service (SMS), social media, apps, internet; (vii) identify, document, and publicize TVET success stories (especially, among women and disadvantaged); and (viii) guide training institutions to develop and facilitate community mobilization strategies.

Output 2: Improved Quality and Relevance of TVET System

  1. Strengthen TVET Quality Assurance System. The Project will pilot a quality assurance system for Public TVET Institutions in Cambodia, including of assessment instruments to be used in the auditing of Public TVET Institutions, RTCs, and PTCs. The Quality Assurance – Monitoring and Evaluation Division (QA-ME) of the DGTVET will be guided to confirm: (i) quality standard components for Public TVET Institutions; (ii) criteria and rating system; and (iii) self-assessment tools for Public TVET Institutions to promote, develop and improve quality of training delivery, and be prepared for internal and external assessments and quality accreditation. The project will support institutes’ development of the skill standards by adapting industry-endorsed competency standard for the curriculum and course development required for course accreditation in electrical works and manufacturing.
  1. A series of workshops will be conducted to introduce a total of 70 directors of TVET institutes based in Phnom Penh and all provinces to the quality standard components and criteria and rating system, and provide training on the use of self-assessment tools. Implementation manuals for piloting the quality system will be developed and distributed to all Public TVET Institutions, RTCs, and PTCs.
  1. The pilot will follow a phased approach supported by 4 annual seminars reaching 100 directors of TVET institutes and other staff per seminar to address issues of implementation and to define the role of the TVET institute assessor and the procedures for auditing of TVET institutes. Position descriptions for quality auditor/assessor and code of practice will be developed and approved by DGTVET. The Project will support 8 internal audits of TVET institutes to be conducted under the pilot.
  1. Ten staff members from DGTVET will participate in a study tour to build knowledge about quality assurance systems.
  1. Establish TVET Competency-based Assessment and Certification System. To support the implementation of key policies developed for operationalizing RPL/RCC, the Project will support the Office responsible for National Accreditation and Assessment under the DGTVET to develop a revised competency assessment and TVET certification system inclusive of VSC. The project will also support the development of competency assessment tools to be used by competency assessment center to be hosted within TVET institutes. A series of workshops reaching 200 staff from TVET institutes in Phnom Penh and 50 staff from TVET institutes in all provinces will be conducted to introduce competency assessment as a key aspect of and the procedures for recognition of competencies, as well as revised TVET certification system inclusive of VSC.
  1. The Project will support the establishment of 10 competency assessment centers within existing Public TVET Institutions, as well as operating costs for conducting assessments. A training program for competency assessors will be developed and delivered under the Project. Eighty assessors and 10 managers of competency assessment center will be trained to design and conduct competency assessments. The 80 assessors will be accredited by DGTVET. A register for assessors will be developed with the Office of National Accreditation and Assessment.
  1. Competency assessment conducted by accredited assessors in established assessment centers of Public TVET Institutions will be piloted with 200 Cambodian youth enrolled with the construction, mechanics (auto mechanics) and ICT/Business. DGTVET will report on results following the piloting of the quality assurance system, including recommendations for system refinements.
  1. Ten staff members from DGTVET will participate in a study tour to build knowledge about implementation of RPL/RCC and competency-based assessment and certification systems.
  1. Improve TVET Instructor Training System. The Project will support the National Technical Training Institute (NTTI) to introduce competency–based pre– and in–service TVET instructor training and instructor assessment. The Project will support the development of curriculum and learning materials for training instructors on the competency-based approached to TVET. Support will also be provided to design an instructor assessment program, inclusive of assessment tools for evaluating the extent to which pre- and in-service TVET instructors understand and deliver competency-based training. The new course offered by NTTI will include the following subjects: (i) identification of competency standards and curriculum design; (ii) design of competency-based learning materials; (iii) delivery of competency-based training; and (iv) design of competency-based assessment; and (v) organization and implementation of competency-based assessment.
  1. The Project will also support NTTI to develop a Return to Industry Scheme, in coordination with Sector Skill Councils, to enhance the technical skills of TVET instructors to deliver CQF Levels 1–4 courses at RTCs and PTCs. Support under the Project will enable arrangements with employers for RTC and PTC instructors to be assigned an “instructor apprenticeship” to gain experience in industry in relation to the course or program he/she will teach. Instructors will be guided to review their training course/program and identify competency areas requiring industry exposure. NTTI, together with Sector Skills Councils, will work with industry enterprise to identify core activities for the instructors to engage in in order to develop the required competencies to deliver the course/program. Upon completion of the “instructor apprenticeship,” NTTI will assess instructors.
  1. Twenty NTTI master trainers will be trained to pilot the delivery of the competency–based pre– and in–service TVET instructor training and instructor assessment, inclusive of the Return to Industry Scheme. In addition, the new program will be piloted with 30 instructors (consisting of 10 in construction, 10 in mechanics (auto mechanics), and 10 in ICT/business) from RTCs who would be teaching Certificate 1 (CQF level 2) programs in these sectors. NTTI, together with DGTVET, will assess the pilot and identify areas for refinement and revise the courses and approach accordingly.
  1. The Project will support the roll-out of the competency–based pre– and in–service TVET instructor training and instructor assessment, inclusive of the Return to Industry Scheme. Approximately 800 instructors (600 original, 200 additional) from Public TVET Institutions will be trained under the Project.
  1. Enhance Voucher Skills Training Program (VSTP). The Project will support DGTVET to increase the effectiveness of the VSTP in terms of stronger linkages to the labor market, integration with the Cambodian Qualification Framework, and gender equity.
  1. DGTVET will be supported to revise the process for local enterprise profiling under the Training and Employment Needs Assessment (TENA) to incorporate provincial investment plans and provincial industry data. The resulting commune training plans will relate to a broad range of skill needs. The Industry Liaison Units based in PTCs will assist in this process, together with the community development specialists (CDS). The CDS will be trained under the Project to analyze skill needs based on provincial investment plans and provincial industry data. The CDS will also be trained to identify skills needs and programs for female trainees and ways to inform women about the range of training and employment opportunities available within the commune, nearby communes, districts and in the province. A total of 62 CDS will be reached under the Project.
  1. The Project will conduct orientation workshops with non-state TVET providers to build awareness about VSTP and its revised TENA requirement. MLVT will solicit proposals from non-state TVET providers for urban VSTP training in business development, entrepreneurship and product marketing, micro-finance, and farm management and value chains based on the revised TENA requirement.[3] The voucher will be based on the following unit costs: $22 per trainee for rural commune-based training; $300 per trainee for rural enterprise-based training; $350 per trainee for rural center-based training; and $456 per trainee for urban center-based training.
  1. The Project will support the introduction of basic skills competency standards and assessment in the VSTP courses through standardized curricula and skills standards in order to allow accumulation of credit towards VSC. The Project will support an assessment and revision of the VSTP guidelines in order to enable trainees to develop multiple documented skill sets and progress to the VSC. The Project will expand and enhance the current VSTP curricula to reflect competency-based training principles. Individuals will be encouraged to enroll multiple times in the VSTP.
  1. The Project will develop modules for the revised VSTP implementation and participation guidelines kit. Revised criteria for VSTP participation and enhanced reporting templates will be developed and included in the Guideline’s Kit. A template for the VSTP skills log book will be developed. Skills log books will be developed and published for occupational areas.
  1. Increased participation of non-state providers in the delivery of CQF level 1 programs under VSTP will be promoted through the development and implementation of a quality assurance mechanism. This will include (i) registration with MLVT, and (ii) submission of standard documentation for compliance with competency-based training and assessment evaluated and approved by the office responsible for National Standards and Accreditation under DGTVET. Qualified providers will be able to submit VSTP training proposals to MLVT.
  1. The Project will increase the number of communes involved in center-based and enterprise-based (urban) VSTP. The Project will support approximately 55,000 trainees (35,000 original, 20,000 additional), of which 60% are female, to enroll in VSTP with the following proportions: 49,100 trainees to enroll in commune-based training; 2,425 trainees to enroll in enterprise-based training; 1,850 trainees to enroll in rural center-based training, and 1,650 in urban center-based training.
  1. The Project will support three tracer studies (baseline before introducing the enhanced VSTP in 2016; second round in 2018; third round in 2020) to understand the impact of the enhanced VSTP training on women and the poor and disadvantaged.
  1. Enhance Skills Bridging Program (SBP). The Project will support DGTVET to expand and enhance the current SBP curricula to reflect competency-based training principles. The Project will support the development of a gender inclusive learning module on career opportunities following vocational training. SBP learning support materials will be designed to reflect curriculum enhancements and gender inclusive principles. The SBP assessment strategies will be revised to reflect competency assessment principles.
  1. Orientation workshops will be conducted on the revised SBP curricula and learning support materials reaching 20 public and non-state providers. MLVT will solicit proposals from non-state TVET providers to deliver competency-based skills bridging courses.[4] An SBP Guidelines Package will be developed to support the increased involvement of non-state providers in offering SBP.
  1. Bi-annual orientation workshops reaching 100 SBP providers (public and non-state) will be conducted to review implementation of competency-based SBP and assessment and identify refinements. The Project will target approximately 10,000 trainees (5,400 original, 3,600 additional), of which approximately 50% are female, to enroll in SBP.
  1. Improve Learning Environment in TVET Facilities. The Project will finance the enhancement of the following TVET facilities to support delivery of the revised CQF Levels 2–4 competency-based training and assessment in construction, mechanics (auto mechanics) and electrical works: (i) Construction of workshops and provision of equipment (including specialized equipment packages) at 18 PTCs (9 original, 9 additional), including Banteay Meanchey PTC, Kampong Cham PTC, Kampong Speu PTC, Kampong Thom PTC, Kandal PTC, Koh Kong PTC, Pursat PTC, Siem Reap-CEFP, Preah Sihanouk; Prey konkla VTC; Kratie PTC; Preyveng PTC; Tbongkhmom PTC; Outdormeanchey PTC; Kep  PTC; Kompongchhang PTC; Japan Vocational Center (JVC), and Pailin PTC; (ii) upgrading of facilities at the aforementioned 18 PTCs; and (iii) construction of an additional building at the Battambang Institute of Technology (BIT), Cambodian- Indian Entrepreneurship Development Institute (CIEDI), Siem Reap–CEFP (Salakarthan), and Tbong Khmom PTC [additional]. The Project will also make provision for rehabilitating the DGTVET building to accommodate the inclusion of new units.
  1. Develop Human Resource Management Policy Frameworks for Instructors in Public TVET Institutions: The Project will assess current human resource management policies and practices in the TVET sector, with a focus on TVET instructors and manager workforce, and benchmark it against corresponding TVET policies and practices in ASEAN countries. The review will also include (a) comprehensive profile (including technical and pedagogical competencies) on the current TVET instructors and manager force employed by public TVET institutions; (b) review of current teaching and learning environments at training institutions and assessment of teaching methods; (c) review of recruitment, licensing, career progression, inspection and performance management mechanisms for TVET managers and instructors; (d) review of current pre-service and in-service training systems and pathways for TVET instructors; and (e) assessment of the available funding for professional development of TVET instructors and managers, among others. Based on the review, the Project will support MLVT to develop policy frameworks to strengthen recruitment and retention, and continuous professional development (pre-service and in-service training) of TVET instructors and managers; improve teaching techniques promoting practice oriented training; strengthen incentive and promotion schemes; and introduce inspection and guidance schemes to support instructors and monitor their performance. The human resource management policies and plans will also consider financial and gender aspects and innovative delivery mechanisms in the TVET sector.

Output 3: Increased Involvement of Employers in TVET Delivery

  1. Strengthen Internship Program. DGTVET will be guided to develop and implement an Internship Policy in coordination with Sector Skills Councils (SSC) to guide the reform of the existing internship program provided by Public TVET Institutions. DGTVET will also be supported to coordinate with Sector Skills Councils to develop a revised framework and guidelines for the internship program offered by Public TVET Institutions, RTCs, and PTCs. Staff of Industry Liaison Units managing the internship programs will be trained to implement and monitor the new program. Industry Liaison Units will also receive training on developing proposals for internship stipends based on the internships planned in coordination with Skills Sector Councils. Industry Liaison Units will submit proposals for internship stipends to DGTVET. The Project will make provision for stipends for CQF levels 2–4 trainees of the Public TVET Institutions to participate in internships. Internship stipends will cover accommodation, food allowance, and travel. Each intern will receive $60 per month for the duration of the internship. Stipends will be paid directly to interns. The Project will support a total of 1,000 Public TVET Institution trainees (200 original, 800 additional), of which 20% are female, to engage in internships as per the following: 540 CQF level 2 trainees, 260 CQF level 3 trainees, and 200 CQF level 4 trainees. CQF levels 3–4 internships will be provided through Centers of Excellence (COE) as per para. 58 below.
  1. A series of workshops reaching 200 staff of Public TVET Institutions, including RTCs and PTCs, NEA, and members of Sector Skills Councils will be conducted to build awareness about the revised internship program and review implementation on an annual basis.
  1. Establish Sector Skills Councils (SSC). The Project will support DGTVET to establish SSC to represent each of the following priority sectors: construction, mechanics (auto mechanics), electrical works, and manufacturing. SSC will be composed of industry associations and large employers. DGTVET will be guided to formulate operating procedures to direct the activities of SSC, and to establish a monitoring and evaluation framework, inclusive of indicators to measure the work of SSC. Engagement of industry associations and large employers as members of the SSC will be formalized through Memoranda of Agreement with MLVT.
  1. SSC will be engaged to support the development of COE under the Project, as well as to establish the following key training programs requiring the participation of large employers: (i) sector-specific soft skills training programs in cooperation with COEs; (ii) Return to Industry Scheme for TVET instructors in cooperation with NTTI; and (iii) internship program offered by Public TVET Institutions in cooperation with Industry Liaison Units and COEs. The Project will make provision for a series of workshops for consultation and planning among representatives of SSC and key stakeholders. The program will make provision for an honorarium paid to members of SSC upon service.
  1. Establish Centers of Excellence. The Project will establish COEs in select host Public TVET Institutions in the following priority sectors: mechanics (auto mechanics), construction, electrical works, and manufacturing. The following are key criteria for selecting the host Public TVET Institutions: (i) experience and resources in delivering training programs for the specific sector; (ii) physical space for COE classes and specialized equipment for training; (iii) experience in collaborating with relevant industry associations or non-state providers; (iv) strong management and leadership as well as good governance; and (v) commitment to developing the COE. Development of the COEs will be guided by SSC and industry advisory groups. DGTVET will be guided to set up a Governing Board for each COE, inclusive of representatives from its SSC. The Project will build the capacity of DGTVET and the host Public TVET Institutions to formulate annual operating plans for engaging in the following core objectives for the COE: (i) improving delivery of CQF levels 1–4 courses in the 4 priority sectors; (ii) establishing sector-specific soft skills training program; and (iii) functioning as resource centers for RTCs and PTCs. The Project will support the evaluation of the internship programs. The following provides details on the activities related to each core objective:
  • Improving delivery of CQF Levels 1–4 courses in the 4 priority sectors.
    1. The Project will build the capacity of DGTVET and each host Public TVET Institutions to develop and pilot VSC and CQF levels 2–4 training programs. The VSC training program will include skills bridging components along with a workplace familiarization course. The Project will provide workers with basic literary and numeracy skills within the workplace context and learning experiences to gain exposure into work floor or workshop environments specific to the sector. The COE for manufacturing will be supported to develop and pilot VSC (CQF level 1) and CQF level 2 course in basic manufacturing processes, inclusive of on-the-job training opportunities. The COE will pilot the training program in RTCs and PTCs located near Special Economic Zones (SEZ). The Project will make provision for 200 trainees to participate in the pilot training program: 100 at CQF level 1 (VSC), 50 at CQF level 2, 25 at CQF level 3, and 25 at CQF level 4.
    2. The Project will build capacity of DGTVET and each host Public TVET Institutions to develop and pilot CQF levels 3–4 internship programs for mid–level and supervisory workers in large manufacturing enterprises. These internship programs will be 12 months in duration. The classroom, theoretical component of the program will be taught in the COE while the practical, hands–on work experience will be guided in select enterprise. Both courses (one at Certificate 2, and another at Certificate 3), will be piloted with enterprise located in the Phnom Penh SEZ.
  • Establishing sector-specific soft skills training program
  1. In cooperation with Sector Skills Councils, the COEs will determine the necessity for soft skills training in terms of common workplace scenarios and problems/issues that arise. The Project will support the development of a soft skills training module to be incorporated into curricula for CQF levels 1– Multimedia training materials for teaching sector-specific soft skills will be provided under the Project.
  • Functioning as resource centers for NTTI and RTCs/PTCs.
  1. The Project will support the COEs to disseminate the CQF levels 1–4 course materials to RTCs and PTCs within each COE network. Support will also be provided to build links between COEs and NTTI in order to share resources to strengthen TVET instructor training.
  1. The Project will make provision for COE operating costs on a sliding scale. The COEs will submit annual operating plans to DGTVET, inclusive of financial needs for implementation of annual plan. The Project will also make provision for specialized equipment for each COE to deliver CQF levels 1–4 training as per consultation with SSC.

 Output 4: Strengthened Governance and Management of the TVET System

  1. Strengthen RTCs and Training Centers at Provincial Level to Offer CQF Level 2 and above courses. The Project will build the capacity of Public TVET Institutions offering certificate level courses, including RTCs, to deliver training courses at CQF levels 2–4 in construction, mechanics (auto mechanics), and ICT/business through the Innovative TVET Management Delivery (ITMD) Strategy. Each RTC will implement a maximum of 6 course titles, 2 per sector, at Certificate 1, 2, & 3 levels (CQF levels 2–4) during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th years of program implementation. The combined 5 RTCs will deliver a total of 90 courses. The ITMD Strategy will also build capacity in the 26 PTCs to deliver Certificate 1 (CQF level 2) training programs in the same three sectors. It is envisioned that each PTC will implement 3-4 course titles per year (1-2 occupations per sector) at Certificate 1, 2, and 3 levels during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th years of Project implementation. The combined 26 Public TVET Institutions will deliver approximately 286 courses (234 original, 52 additional). All RTC and Public TVET Institution trainees will be assessed and certified under the new competency assessment system development and implemented under the Project.
  1. The ITMD Strategy will strengthen RTCs and Public TVET Institutions in the areas of (i) planning; (ii) budgeting; (iii) Project implementation; (iv) business development; and (v) monitoring, evaluation, and reporting. RTC and Public TVET Institution directors and administrators will be trained to develop the following: (i) 3-year TVET institute business plan; (ii) annual operational plans; (iii) 3-year TVET institute human resource and institutional capacity development plan; and (iv) performance management scorecard.
  1. The ITMD Strategy will also strengthen the capacity of RTC and PTC directors and administrators to develop budget plans and more effectively employ financial/accounting procedures. The strategy will also strengthen capacity to determine program costs and identify sources of funding. As part of the budgeting process, the ITMD Strategy will build capacity to develop a business model and plan to systematize revenue and develop RTC/PTC capacity to engage in income generating activities through the selling of training programs and services to businesses.
  1. Finally, the ITMD Strategy will operationalize the RTC cluster system. The strategy will set up a cluster committee for each of the 5 RTC networks that have already been established under STVET. Committee meetings will be held once monthly and rotate around the RTCs and PTCs in each cluster, providing opportunities for the RTCs/PTCs to learn about the activities of other institutes. Staff of the DGTVET’s office responsible for policy and planning will be members on each Cluster Committee to strengthen links between DGTVET and RTCs/PTCs and ensure that cluster activities are aligned with DGTVET policy and planning. Other DGTVET departments, such as finance, will also be represented on the committees to ensure that RTC/PTC budgeting is in line with decentralization initiatives related to Public Financial Management Reform Program and Program Budgeting. Cluster committees will carry out a needs analysis to produce a Cluster Operational Plan that aligns individual RTC and PTC operation plans in order to better coordinate their combined efforts to address local manpower and skill development needs.
  1. An annual TVET conference, hosted by MLVT, will be implemented during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th years of the Project, bringing together cluster with the COEs and other non-state and non-government organization (NGO) TVET providers, to facilitate the exchange of ideas and address current issues in the TVET Sector.
  1. Strengthen Financing of Public TVET Institutions. The Project will finance start-up costs of select Public TVET Institutions, in particular RTCs and PTCs, to offer courses at CQF levels 2– The start-up costs will be funded on a sliding scale: 100% in the 1st year, 80% in the 2nd year, 50% in the 3rd year, 30% in the 4th year and 10% in the 5th year.
  1. RTCs and PTCs will submit a business plan as a basis for spending start-up costs provided under the Project, as well as an annual comprehensive budget for the institution which identifies proposed spending items to be financed by the Project funds. Spending must be on eligible expenditures such as staff training, teaching materials and equipment, stationery, utilities, transport, industry liaison, marketing, tracer studies of certificate graduates, monitoring and evaluation, and cluster development. Funds will be provided to RTCs and PTC in semester 1 in advance once enrollments are verified by submission of student details to DGTVET through appropriate forms. Further funding will be based on full accounting and acquittal against the annual budget and business plan.
  1. Improve Information Management Systems (MIS). The Project will support review of the existing TVETMIS (including data, processes, equipment, personnel, capacities, integration (e.g. with LMIS), and information use), and develop phased improvement plans to help TVETMIS gradually transition over time from a data repository to a functional management tool. The Project will introduce upgrades to the TVETMIS, including, (a) improvements to instrument design and indicator quality; (b) piloting of approaches for better and quicker data capture; (c) streamlining of data and information flows and processes with an eye to timeliness and relevance; (d) standardization of data structures, definitions and classifications; and (e) expansion of TVETMIS to include students competency unit databases (courses), student level databases, comprising student-level records on bio-data, contact information, and achievement, among others; teacher-level records on bio-data, career history; qualifications, courses taught, among others; institutional inventories of TVET staff, equipment, and physical facilities; and assessor register. Expansion of TVETMIS will also include registration of training competency-based courses; participation in stipends, vocational guidance and counselling, and internship program; and if feasible, coverage of CQF 1 (VSC) trainings on a pilot basis.
  1. Furthermore, the Project will support the development of a module to link TVETMIS and selected financial indicators for formation of unit costs. Revision and redevelopment of reporting modules within the information system will be supported to provide consolidated reporting and disaggregated division/institution reporting. Trainings will also be provided to MLVT and TVET school staff on improved analysis and use of TVETMIS. The TVETMIS website will also be upgraded to provide an attractive and user-friendly interface to access and generate statistics, graphics, and reports on TVET sector in Cambodia.
  1. The Project will also support expanding the labor market information system (LMIS) to include achievement of skills areas among the workforce in order to assess the extent to which supply meets demand. A series of workshops reaching 100 National Employment Agency (NEA) staff, DGTVET staff, and staff of Public TVET Institutions, together with RTCs and PTCs, will be conducted to access and use the system to inform TVET programming.
  1. Support NEA and Department of Labor Market Information (DLMI) to Generate Relevant and Timely Labor Market Intelligence: The Project will support NEA and DLMI with (i) collecting labor marketing intelligence, through skills measurement survey, skills gap analysis, tracer studies, enterprise surveys, and other special labor market studies; (ii) analyzing and reporting labor market intelligence, through good quality labor market forecasting studies, and preparing labor market bulletins and industry career guides, etc.; and (iii) disseminating labor market intelligence to relevant audiences through brochures, leaflets, short digestible reports for different types of audience (students, employers, TVET managers, etc.), using a variety of formats and delivery platforms (e.g. print, website, videos, news articles). The Project also supports developing capacity of NEA and DLMI to generate, analyze and disseminate labor market information through demand based work planning; training of staff in NEA and DLMI; and development of methodologies, tools, and templates.
  1. The Project will further strengthen institutional capacities and coordination between NEA and ILUs for labor market information sharing and employment facilitation of TVET graduates, through (i) review of capacities and coordination between NEAs and ILU, and developing a capacity development and coordination plan; (ii) training of ILU and NEA staff, including on ways and means to engage relevant employers, and matching TVET students with the right jobs; and (iii) piloting of institutional coordination mechanisms and platforms to enhance coordination between ILUs and NEA for labor market information exchange and employment of TVET graduates.
  1. Review and preparation of next TVET Strategic Plan: The Project will support review of the implementation progress of the TVET Strategic Plan 2014-2018 – including analysis of corresponding policies, strategies, core indicators, and performance targets – and identify positive trends and critical challenges. The review will also encompass assessing the implementation of results-based planning and budgeting, including annual operational plans (AOPs) of DGTVET and its technical training institutes. Based on the review, the Project will support DGTVET and DPS to prepare results-based TVET Strategic Plan, 2019-2024, through participatory consultations of all stakeholders.